Calder, Alexander(American, 1898-1976)
Alexander Calder was born in 1898 in Philadelphia, the son of Alexander Stirling Calder and grandson of Alexander Milne Calder, both well-known sculptors. After obtaining his mechanical engineering degree from the Stevens Institute of Technology, Calder worked various jobs before enrolling at the Art Students League in New York City in 1923. In 1925, Calder published his first book, Animal Sketches, illustrated in brush and ink, and early in 1926, he began to carve primitive figures in tropical wood, which remained an important medium in his work until 1930.
Calder's first New York City exhibition was in 1928, and other exhibitions in Paris and Berlin gained him international recognition as a significant artist. A visit to Piet Mondrian's studio proved pivotal, and Calder began to work in an abstract style, finishing his first nonobjective construction in 1931. In early 1932, he exhibited his first moving sculpture in an exhibition organized by Marcel Duchamp, who coined the word "mobile." In May 1932, Calder's fame was consolidated by the first United States show of his mobiles. Some were motor-driven, and his later wind-driven mobiles enabled the sculptural parts to move independently, as Calder said, "by nature and chance."
In June 1936, Calder moved to Paris and began classes at the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere and made his first wire sculptures. Calder created a miniature circus in his studio; the animals, clowns and tumblers were made of wire and animated by hand. Many leading artists of the period attended, and helped with the performances.
From the 1940s on, many of Calder’s large-scale outdoor sculptures were placed in virtually every major city of the Western world. In the 1950s, he created two new series of mobiles: "Towers," which included wall-mounted wire constructions, and "Gongs," mobiles with sound.
Alexander Calder was internationally famous within his lifetime and is best known for developing the mobile as a new idiom in Modern art. His work is characteristically direct, spare, buoyant, colorful and finely crafted. He made ingenious, frequently witty, use of natural and manmade materials, including wire, sheet metal, wood and bronze. Calder was prolific and worked throughout his career in many art forms. He produced drawings, oil paintings, watercolors, etchings, gouache and serigraphy. He also designed jewelry, tapestry, theatre settings and architectural interiors.

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